Need for the Development of Childhood Psychology and the Need to Focus on the Developmental Theories of Pediatric Psychology in Children
Pediatrics is related to the social and personal development of children and the child passes through several stages before entering an adult world. The psychology of children has been studied from a number of perspectives, including questions of nature and education, and that child genetic and hereditary, or society and the environment as well as sensory discrimination and perception, emotional expression and learning at different stages of development cognitive development, the development of intelligence and the socialization process. The examination of child sexuality and sexual and moral development is also very important, especially from a psychoanalytic point of view.
Children are vulnerable and can easily be affected by any event in the immediate environment. Events that are only trivial or insignificant for adults can leave deep scars or memories in the minds of children. The child's mind is extremely sensitive and can be changed and before the child reaches adolescence, certain very insignificant events can have a great personal significance in the child's life. Thus, "childhood memories" and "childhood events" are the primary factors in determining the adult personality pattern. One of the most important factors that may influence the child 's future development and long – term effects is:
1. Loss or profit is a friend or friends
2. Memorable physical / physical feelings
3. Separation of the family or divorce of parents
4. Abuse or violence
5. Sexual harassment or abuse
6. Learning experience, either during play or while studying
7. Personal experiences / events that have provoked strong emotions of fear, joy, and sorrow.
8. Experienced or observed accidents or illnesses
9. The death of family members, neighbors or close friends
10. Change of residence or transfer
11. Emotional relationships with friends, teachers, or family members
12. Personal success or failure in school
13. Movies, stories, books or news
14. War, terrorism, conflicts, bomb attacks, etc.
15. Factors such as earthquakes, floods, famines, etc. Factors are very common and every child goes through certain very unique events that affect him individually, although there are certain general psychological theories, and these theories have highlighted the relationship between the success or failure of later life and childhood events. One of the most important theorists of child development is John Bowlby, Sigmund Freud, Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohlberg and Levy Vygotsky. While Bowlby placed emphasis on childhood relationships, Piaget focused on the cognitive development of children at various stages, and Freud wrote widely about children's sexual development. Kohlberg has studied the moral development of children while Vygotsky deals with the social situation of the socialization process of children. All these theories on the various aspects of child development reveal only the enormous complexity and diverse factors that play a part in the psychological development of children. Children's psychology has many dimensions in social, emotional and cognitive, sexual and moral terms. Here I briefly report on these different theories and finally give a comprehensive analysis of how these theories could be used in addition to the above mentioned general factors in studying the psychology of children.
John Bowlby, a British psychiatrist, developed a "sticking theory" in which he stressed the importance of mother or primary carer in the child's life. In his study, he showed that every infant should develop and maintain a warm and intimate relationship with the mother or mother substitute, and any maternal deprivation can lead to serious mental health problems in the child's later life. Bowlby's theory is very true and the mother needs to develop a strong physical and emotional intimacy with the child when physically close to the child, at least until the child is 2 years old. Doctors worldwide have breastfeeding and an important part of this is physical closeness between the child and the mother, which is extremely necessary if the child is in the mother's womb. When the child is released from the mother's womb, the first emotion is fear and the mother's continuous physical proximity places the child confident and confident. Forbidden children or children who are divorced from birth by birth or are being replaced by mental illness or poorly adjusted individuals.
Freud, on the other hand, provided a complete psychossexual theory and stressed that many of us did not want to believe – the sexual pleasure of children. Freud overwhelmed the concept of childhood innocence and suggested that we could be born with our unreformed fundamental instinct that is slowly suffering from social adaptation. Freud believed that the delightful demand in him desires to be born on the individual erogenous zones of the body, and accordingly, there are various stages of psychosocial development from the oral cavity and its analytics to the phallic, latent and genital phases. In psychossexual development, the joyful behavior of the child changes from the mouth like sucking and bite into the anus on the toilet training and then finally on the genitals. Thus, according to psychoanalysis, the child has full sexual pleasure, sucking, bite, playing genitals and releasing waste generated by leakage. I do not necessarily support Freud's views on the sexual pleasure of children, and the joy of bodily sensations can be explained differently, as I discuss in another article.
French-Swiss philosopher Jean-Claude Piaget is cognitive and has developed four development stages – the sensomotor period, the pre-operative stage, the specific operational phase and the formal phase of operation. The first stage is when the child develops spatial abilities and perceives the whole world during the first two years of life. The second section deals with the development and use of concepts when children understand the meaning of things and continue until the age of 7. From 7 to 11 years of age, the child reaches higher cognitive development through the actual operational phase and can sort and classify the objects and use logic to solve problems. The formal operational phase, starting at age 12, helps children understand abstract thoughts, hidden reports, and so on. Kohlberg's theory was defined by the theory of moral development of children at preconventional, conventional and post-convention levels. These are related to punishment and concerns about self-interest, as well as to the pursuit of social order and internal endeavors as they maintain universal ethical principles. So, moral development seems to shift from the "what is right and wrong" conviction and whether there is a punishment for evil for a generally ethical and acceptable social behavior. Another prominent psychologist, Vygotsky, emphasized the importance of socialization and interpersonal communication and child development, according to which this theory can be considered as an internalization of social and cultural knowledge.
Of course, all these theories must be combined and complete or comprehensive The theory that provides insight into the mind of the child and behavior will be part of these theories. In addition, childhood experiences and events highlighted in psychoanalytic theories are extremely important, not just from a sexual point of view. All the general factors mentioned at the beginning of the essay should be considered as factors that are the basis of the social, sexual, moral, emotional, physical and cognitive development of children. As learning experiences lead to cognitive development, personal emotional experiences lead to later emotional development and maturity. Child sexual abuse, abuse or other physical feelings influence later sexual development and divorce or separation within the family. They can affect moral development. Thus, a person who has been molested as a child may be a total absence of fear of sexual activity or of sexual restraint becoming adult.
A father without a father or extremely irresponsible or an adult who has a very strong parental responsibility. Examining trauma in childhood when experiencing the deaths, accidents, or wars of a family member, natural disasters have a profound effect on children and can leave the eternal uncertainty or the need for children in adulthood, even in the elderly, or on the other hand, these events are distinctly schizophrenic or simply pick up children in later life. For the sake of a healthy lifestyle of children it is important not only to understand how the child develops and perceives the world, but also to focus on children's events and experiences, and to use them together with full theories of psychological understanding of children
Focusing on events in contemporary child psychology is primarily psychoanalytic and the effect of unwanted events is particularly significant. However, it is important to take into account all positive and negative events, which should be used to supplement psychological theories. To understand the child, it is important to understand the child's world and its memories, so the "event-based" psychology of children must be balanced with children's "theory-based" psychology.
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